Fundamentals of proper nutrition in diabetes

A properly composed diet for people with diabetes is one of the important components in the complex of therapeutic measures. The diet is aimed at reducing the amount of carbohydrates and animal fats consumed with food, which lead to an increase in blood glucose levels. This method of therapy helps to restore metabolic processes in the human body. Proper, balanced nutrition in diabetes mellitus allows a person to lead a normal life, makes it possible to avoid the development of serious complications.

Principles of Diet Therapy

The diet is prescribed taking into account the severity and form of the disease. Consumed products should sufficiently saturate the body with energy and all the necessary vitamins and minerals.

Diabetes mellitus can cause obesity, which increases the risk of atherosclerosis, heart attack, stroke, and nephropathy. A balanced diet helps to control the intake of fats and carbohydrates in the body, normalizes metabolism.

It is very important to correctly compose a daily balanced diet for type 1 diabetes in children. With a disturbed metabolism, the child lags behind in development from his peers, lethargic and depressed. Correction of the diet allows you to restore growth and even refuse insulin injections.

By adhering to the rules of nutrition, patients can independently regulate the level of glycemia, maintain optimal blood glucose levels.

In elderly people, the course of the disease is combined with a poor psycho-emotional state due to a violation of metabolic processes in the body. Diet helps to cheer up, cope with depression.

With diabetes, it is important to follow a diet. You need to eat in small portions 5-6 times a day. You can not overeat, getting up from the table should remain a slight feeling of hunger. A larger portion should be for breakfast, a smaller one for dinner. When eating for the first time, the menu should contain enough energy-intensive food to ensure that a person feels normal for the whole day.

The role of carbohydrates

oatmeal with berries for diabetes

The main function of carbohydrates is energy for the human body. When taken with food, they cannot be absorbed in the same volume as in healthy people, therefore, the concentration of glucose in the blood rises.

When observing a diabetic type of nutrition, it is necessary to exclude easily digestible carbohydrates from the diet. These are chocolate, sweets, flour, rich products, refined sugar, rice and semolina. The menu should include complex carbohydrates, which take much longer to digest and absorb in the intestines. These are oatmeal, fruits, vegetables, black bread.

The amount of carbohydrates consumed by patients should be the same every day. To do this, you need to know which products can replace each other. For this purpose, the definition of a bread unit has been introduced. One XE contains 12 g of carbohydrates, the patient needs to eat no more than 8 units at a time, the daily rate is 25 XE. For example, a slice of rye bread can be replaced with 150 g of boiled potatoes or half a liter of milk.

The role of fiber

eating vegetable salad in diabetes

Vegetable fiber is very important in the diet of people with diabetes. This component is able to reduce the level of glucose in the blood.

Healthy fiber-rich foods include:

  • cabbage;
  • citrus;
  • Jerusalem artichoke;
  • mushrooms;
  • fresh greens;
  • oatmeal;
  • Strawberry.

Fiber improves intestinal motility, normalizes digestion, removes bad cholesterol, toxins and toxins. The daily norm is 50 g.

Dietary guidelines for diabetes

foods for diabetes

Nutrition in diabetes excludes the use of animal fats, they must be replaced with vegetable ones. Prohibited foods include pork, duck meat, lamb, sour cream, butter. Instead, you can eat rabbit, chicken breast, veal or turkey, dairy products. You need to steam or bake the meat in the oven with vegetables, with the addition of a small amount of vegetable oil.

This mode helps not only to lower the level of sugar, but also reduces the content of low-density cholesterol compounds, with an increase in the number of which the risk of developing diseases of the heart and circulatory system sharply increases. You can not replace butter with margarine, as it contains no less harmful trans fats. The daily dose of easily digestible fats is 40 g.

How to eat properly with diabetes? Patients need to increase the amount of protein food (2 g / kg of body weight) to obtain energy, since fats and carbohydrates are excluded as much as possible. This is especially true for pregnant women, children, severely malnourished patients. The exception is people suffering from impaired kidney function, ketoacytosis. You can get proteins from low-fat dairy products, cereals, lean meats.

Nutrition for diabetes should fully saturate the body with useful vitamins and minerals.

Vitamin B₁ is especially needed, which is found in large quantities in beans, wholemeal bread, and yeast.

To lower blood glucose, the body needs manganese, copper and zinc. These substances normalize the liver, promote the production of insulinase, increase overall immunity, and stimulate the body's oxidative processes.

  • Copper is found in mushrooms, nuts, legumes, oatmeal and pearl barley.
  • Zinc is rich in hard cheese, mushrooms, eggs, cereals and legumes.
  • Manganese is found in cereals, blackcurrants, raspberries.

Nutrition in diabetes limits the intake of salt. Only 6 g of the product is allowed per day. You need to drink at least 1. 5 liters of liquid per day. The amount of water is calculated as follows: 30 ml per 1 kg of body weight. The exception is patients suffering from kidney disease, swelling.

Alcoholic beverages that can lead to hypoglycemia are prohibited. Alcohol increases the production of insulin in the body, contributes to the development and aggravation of ketoacidosis.

How to eat with diabetes? If the patient is overweight, then the number of calories per day should be no more than 35 units per 1 kilogram of body weight. People with a normal constitution need to receive up to 40 kcal / kg per day, and for thin patients this figure is increased to 50 kcal / kg. It is quite difficult for patients to follow a strict diet, so sometimes it is allowed to eat a little sweet or fatty, replacing any other foods from the diet.

Diet for type 1 diabetics

salad with vegetables and herbs for diabetes

How to eat with type 1 diabetes for people receiving insulin? It is important for such patients to create a menu containing the same amount of carbohydrates daily. To do this, you can replace products with equivalent ones in order to diversify the diet. It is important to correctly distribute the resulting carbohydrates. Violation of these rules can lead to a sharp increase in blood sugar.

For insulin-dependent patients, diet No. 9b is recommended. The patient should always have something sweet with him, so that a crisis does not occur with a sharp decrease in glucose levels.

What nutrition is necessary for each patient with diabetes mellitus, the attending physician decides. The doctor prescribes a regimen and diet, taking into account the individual characteristics of the patient, the severity of the disease, the presence of complications.

Diet for Type II Diabetes

The reason for the development of type II disease is the poor absorption of insulin by the body. Incoming carbohydrates do not have time to be processed and cause increased sugar. It is very important for such patients to follow a low-carbohydrate diet in order to normalize lipid metabolism.

As a rule, patients with type II diabetes are overweight, so fatty foods are excluded from the menu for weight loss.

In folk medicine, there are many useful recipes based on natural herbs that help normalize and lower blood sugar levels, restore metabolic processes in the body. These remedies include a decoction of rosehips, nettles, yarrow, Jerusalem artichoke juice. Plants contain fiber and useful trace elements, vitamins, which are necessary for people suffering from various forms of diabetes.

A balanced, low-carbohydrate diet is an important part of managing various types of diabetes. Compliance with the diet allows patients to lead a normal life, to improve their well-being as much as possible.